In the report ‘eSIM: a guide for enterprise adopters’ (September, 2021) we examined the background to eSIM, remote SIM provisioning and subscription management; what it is and what benefits it brings. In this report we look at the market impact. Where has it been adopted and by whom? What is the impact on demand? What are the implications of the availability of this technology for the commercial models of cellular-based IoT? In particular it focuses on the commercial models that might be necessary for MNOs to better take advantage of the opportunities that eSIM presents.