This report discusses the basics of quantum computing along with necessary terminologies one needs to know in order to understand the working of quantum computers.
Quantum computing is a branch of computing that uses quantum theory to solve problems that are too large or complex for traditional computers, and at exponentially faster rates. These machines manipulate the quantum state of an object to produce qubits to perform complex operations. These qubits lead to the formation of quantum gates that further combine to create quantum circuits, which are the basic functional blocks of a quantum computer and are responsible for performing operations using one of the many quantum algorithms.
In this report we outline the basic principles of quantum computing and how it works, including discussion of qubits, relevant principles of quantum mechanics (including superposition, entanglement, and interference). We also discuss quantum gates and quantum circuits, including consideration of key gate types and how these are configured into circuits.
Quantum algorithms are key aspects of the coming quantum computing revolution, and we discuss some of the most significant, including Shor’s Algorithm, Grover’s Algorithm, Simon’s Algorithm, and the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm.
Lastly, we outline the key components of a quantum computer, including both hardware and software, and discuss alternative types of quantum computers and quantum processors (including gate-based, quantum annealers, and photonic quantum computers).